Testosterone Replacement Therapy


The initials of TRT stand for "Testosterone Replacement Therapy," which is an exceptionally effective treatment for men experiencing low testosterone levels and suffering from the symptoms of this condition. Low testosterone levels are a common condition that can occur either from the moment of birth or develop over the course of a man's life due to aging, stress, and an unhealthy lifestyle. It is estimated that 1 in 4 men over the age of 30 may have low testosterone levels. TRT, therefore, involves the replacement of a man's natural testosterone production in cases where the levels of the particular hormone are lower than normal.

The treatment is administered by administering testosterone either through injections or the application of a specific cream or gel. Our center offers various options for testosterone administration so that you can choose the one that suits you. Today, the use of other medication, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), is also quite common in a TRT protocol, aiming to optimize the treatment while maintaining fertility and the natural production of testosterone by the body. Additionally, the management of other hormones, such as estrogen, may be required in combination with appropriate medication. The drugs administered during the treatment vary from person to person, and each man responds effectively to different options.

The administration of other drugs, including hCG, to maintain natural testosterone levels in the body has led some to rename TRT as "testosterone optimization therapy," as the natural production of testosterone remains active and is not replaced.


Testosterone Replacement Therapy can be applied in many different ways. However, the most popular and effective method involves the administration of testosterone injections, while the concurrent use of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is equally important. With its help, fertility, natural testosterone production, and the regulation of other hormonal functions can be maintained. However, some men do not choose this type of treatment, i.e., injectable administration, as there are other options available, which may include either less frequent injections or none at all. The available solutions include:

  • Testosterone cream/gel, which, however, may be accompanied by absorption problems.
  • Monthly or quarterly testosterone injections, such as undecanoate testosterone.
  • Weekly testosterone injections, usually enanthate or cypionate testosterone, which are the preferred treatment options for most men.


The benefits of TRT include:

  • Improved mood - reduced anxiety
  • Improved libido - increased sexual desire
  • Enhanced assertiveness
  • Increased self-confidence
  • Better quality of erection
  • Improved sleep quality
  • Increased muscle mass and strength
  • Improved beard hair growth
  • Better vascularization and blood flow (reducing the risk of diabetes and potentially reversing mild type 2 diabetes)
  • Deeper and more stable voice
  • Improved bone density
  • Enhanced cognitive ability, including memory and mental clarity


The most common side effects of TRT are usually related to increased levels of estrogen and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and the treatment may also affect fertility. Regarding side effects related to estrogen, the following are mentioned:

- Fatigue: Contrary to expectations, TRT can cause fatigue. This typically happens when the dose is too high or when someone converts a large amount of testosterone into estrogen. If estrogen levels increase, men often experience fatigue.

- Nipple itchiness or gynecomastia: The increase in estrogen can also cause irritation and augmentation (in later stages) of breast tissue. This process usually starts with nipple tenderness.

- Fluid retention: High levels of estrogen can lead to fluid retention. This is a common side effect of TRT and a good indicator that estrogen levels are increasing. It is often observed as weight gain or ankle swelling. This can be a serious side effect if left untreated in men with any cardiovascular disease.

The administration of testosterone at the appropriate dosage and under strict patient monitoring can lead to beneficial results. However, arbitrary use of testosterone or inadequate evaluation of symptoms can accelerate the occurrence of numerous side effects, resulting in anything but the desired results. Not all men with low testosterone are suitable candidates for testosterone replacement therapy. TRT should only be carried out under the guidance of an experienced doctor familiar with the dosage of the specific hormone and the indication for its administration. The solution to low testosterone levels should be sought through the appropriate medical approach and always with the informed consent of a specialist.

The decision for testosterone replacement therapy is not made arbitrarily but requires the simultaneous assessment of numerous parameters and regular examinations. Only if there are relevant indications and symptoms can the external administration of testosterone be decided, in the form of injections or gel. At MenTest, one of the leading testosterone replacement therapy centers in Greece, we apply TRT safely and responsibly to each patient. Our center offers various options for testosterone administration to select the most suitable form of the hormone in each case, always taking the patient's needs into serious consideration. The administration of testosterone is fully personalized and tailored to the patient's preferences, accompanied with systematic monitoring to ensure that the treatment is effective and free of potential side effects.